Some women get yeast infections every month around the time of their menstrual periods. Your health care provider may tell you that you need to take medicine every month to prevent yeast infections. This is done to stop the symptoms from developing, or if you get a lot of infections you may be told that you need to take oral pills for up to 6 months. Never self-treat unless you’ve talked to your health care provider.
The fungus Candida is normally found on and in the body in small amounts. It is present on the skin and in the mouth, as well as in the intestinal tract and genital area. Most of the time, Candida does not cause any symptoms. When these organisms overgrow, they can cause infections (candidiasis), which sometimes can become chronic. If the fungus enters the bloodstream, the infection can spread to other parts of the body. Bloodstream infections are most common in newborns, children with long-term intravenous catheters, and children with weakened immune systems caused by illnesses or medicines.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.

When an individual experiences recurring infections in the urinary tract or vagina, candida may be at the root of the problem. It is important to realize that candida can be sexually transmitted, and partners can spread it back and forth. For women, reduce the risk by avoiding tight-fitting underwear or pantyhose and avoid hot baths during an active infection. (6)
But how do you know if what you're seeing — or feeling — is actually a yeast infection? These surefire signs signal that it's time to schedule a visit with your OBGYN. That way you'll know if an over-the-counter treatment will actually work, or if you need to grab a prescription for something stronger. Either way, you'll be on your way to a healthy, back-in-balance vagina.
Topical antifungal creams are the most likely form of medication a doctor will recommend. While these are available over-the-counter, it is important to discuss the right type to purchase and the frequency and amount of application. Creams like clotrimazole are often suitable for use in an infant. This antifungal cream is applied to the affected area at least once per day, such as before bed, for about seven to 10 days. Vaginal antifungal suppositories should never be used in an infant unless suggested by a health care provider, which is unlikely.
Contact your doctor as soon as possible if you think your baby has a yeast infection of any type. Seek immediate medical attention if your baby is having difficulty eating. Also contact your doctor immediately or seek emergency medical care if your baby has a fever or low body temperature, is drowsy or difficult to awaken, or experiences rapid, labored or irregular breathing.
How does thrush affect men? Thrush is a fungal infection caused by Candida yeasts. There are two types: genital thrush, which, in men, can cause irritation and swelling at the head of the penis, and oral thrush that occurs in the mouth. Mild infections may not require treatment, but medications and home remedies may help to relieve symptoms. Read now
Typically, yeast infection discharge doesn’t have an odor to it. It’s bacterial vaginosis (BV), another common vaginal infection, that does—and it may be “fishy.” But here’s the catch: “Some patients will have a yeast infection and BV at the same time,” Dr. Atashroo says. So your discharge may very well smell “off.” If you treat a yeast infection at home and it doesn’t get better, you need an evaluation to see if you have another (or entirely different) infection, she says. Find out the 8 silent signs of cervical cancer.
Use of a boric acid suppository is accepted as a treatment for Candida species other than the most common one, Candida albicans, which responds well to the usual treatments. The boric acid is contained in a gelatin capsule, and you can get instructions on how to make your own using over-the-counter boric acid and a fillable size 0 or 00 gelatin capsule. You should be sure that you get medical advice on using this; 600 milligrams, once or twice daily for seven to 14 days is usually recommended. You should never take boric acid by mouth or use it on open wounds. It is not safe to use while pregnant. Even when used as recommended, you may have some skin irritation.
Vaginal yeast infections are typically treated with topical antifungal agents.[15] A one-time dose of fluconazole is 90% effective in treating a vaginal yeast infection.[56] For severe nonrecurring cases, several doses of fluconazole is recommended.[15] Local treatment may include vaginal suppositories or medicated douches. Other types of yeast infections require different dosing. Gentian violet can be used for thrush in breastfeeding babies. C. albicans can develop resistance to fluconazole, this being more of an issue in those with HIV/AIDS who are often treated with multiple courses of fluconazole for recurrent oral infections.[57]
What you need to know about a yeast infection A fungal infection of the genitals can affect anyone. Caused by the yeast species Candida albicans, symptoms include itching, irritation, and burning. A yeast infection can be complicated or uncomplicated, and treatment depends on the type. Find out about diagnosis and how to reduce the risk of developing an infection. Read now
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Burning while urinating can be an excruciating experience. Luckily, it’s less common among yeast infection symptoms, but it’s still something that patients may notice, says Megan Quimper, MD, an ob-gyn at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. Urine can aggravate already raw, irritated tissues. Burning is a common symptom of a urinary tract infection, which also includes a persistent urge to go and cloudy urine, according to the Mayo Clinic. Talk to your doctor about what may be going on with you and brush up on these 9 symptoms of a UTI.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Wang ZK, Yang YS, Stefka AT, Sun G, Peng LH (April 2014). "Review article: fungal microbiota and digestive diseases". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 39 (8): 751–766. doi:10.1111/apt.12665. PMID 24612332. In addition, GI fungal infection is reported even among those patients with normal immune status. Digestive system-related fungal infections may be induced by both commensal opportunistic fungi and exogenous pathogenic fungi. The IFI in different GI sites have their special clinical features, which are often accompanied by various severe diseases. Although IFI associated with digestive diseases are less common, they can induce fatal outcomes due to less specificity of related symptoms, signs, endoscopic and imaging manifestations, and the poor treatment options. ... Candida sp. is also the most frequently identified species among patients with gastric IFI. ... Gastric IFI is often characterised by the abdominal pain and vomiting and with the endoscopic characteristics including gastric giant and multiple ulcers, stenosis, perforation, and fistula. For example, gastric ulcers combined with entogastric fungal infection, characterised by deep, large and intractable ulcers,[118] were reported as early as the 1930s. ... The overgrowth and colonisation of fungi in intestine can lead to diarrhoea.
Using an otoscope, your vet will be able to look at your dog’s ear canal to determine if the ear drum is intact or if anything is present in the ear canal that could be causing the infection. The doctor will probably also take a sample of material from in and around the ear, and examine this under the microscope. It is important to determine whether the infection is caused by yeast, bacteria, or both.
Other treatments after more than four episodes per year, may include ten days of either oral or topical treatment followed by fluconazole orally once per week for 6 months.[22] About 10-15% of recurrent candidal vulvovaginitis cases are due to non-Candida albicans species.[25] Non-albicans species tend to have higher levels of resistance to fluconazole.[26] Therefore, recurrence or persistence of symptoms while on treatment indicates speciation and antifungal resistance tests to tailor antifungal treatment.[24]
Such a diaper rash can begin with softening and breakdown of the tissue around the anus. The infected area is red and elevated, and fluid may be visible under the skin. Small, raised infected red bumps (satellite pustules) appear at the periphery of the rash. These satellite pustules are characteristic of Candida diaper rash and allow yeast diaper rash to be easily distinguished from other types of diaper rash such as a contact (irritant) diaper rash. Yeast diaper rash can appear on the thighs, genital creases, abdomen, and genitals.
Candida yeasts are generally present in healthy humans, frequently part of the human body's normal oral and intestinal flora, and particularly on the skin; however, their growth is normally limited by the human immune system and by competition of other microorganisms, such as bacteria occupying the same locations in the human body.[34] Candida requires moisture for growth, notably on the skin.[35] For example, wearing wet swimwear for long periods of time is believed to be a risk factor.[36] In extreme cases, superficial infections of the skin or mucous membranes may enter into the bloodstream and cause systemic Candida infections.

Your genital health can be a sensitive subject. You should only opt out of treatment if you have experienced a yeast infection before and are comfortable with your body’s response, or if your symptoms are very mild. Even in these cases, it is best to be cautious and ask your doctor about your yeast infection and how you should treat it. The sooner you know, the sooner you can get back to a healthy life.


It's not clear whether vaginal yeast infections can be transferred during sexual intercourse. However, if your sexual partner has the symptoms of candida—redness, irritation and/or itching at the tip of the penis in a male—he may need to be treated. In rare cases, treatment of partners of women with recurrent yeast infection is recommended. Additionally, recurrent yeast infections may be representative of a different problem. Thus, it is important to see your health care provider for an evaluation.
For infrequent recurrences, the simplest and most cost-effective management is self-diagnosis and early initiation of topical therapy.[23] However, women whose condition has previously been diagnosed with candidal vulvovaginitis are not necessarily more likely to be able to diagnose themselves; therefore, any woman whose symptoms persist after using an over the counter preparation, or who has a recurrence of symptoms within 2 months, should be evaluated with office-based testing.[4] Unnecessary or inappropriate use of topical preparations is common and can lead to a delay in the treatment of other causes of vulvovaginitis, which can result in worse outcomes.[4]
Researchers believe that certain methods of birth control may be to blame for recurrent yeast infections. Spermicidal jellies and creams increase a woman's susceptibility to infection by altering vaginal flora, allowing candida (yeast microorganisms) to take firmer hold. It seems that the estrogen in oral contraceptives causes the vagina to produce more glycogen (sugar), which feeds the yeast. Vaginal sponges and intrauterine devices (IUDs) may also make you more prone to infection, and diaphragms are thought to promote colonization of candida.
Antibiotics are one of the most common culprits in causing yeast infections, because they destroy vaginal bacteria and thereby disrupt the balance of power among the vaginal microorganisms. This balance is also affected by hormone levels, so women are more prone to yeast infections if they’re using hormonal contraceptives, during pregnancy, or just prior to menstruation. Yeast infections are also more common in women with compromised immune systems due to illnesses like diabetes, AIDS, or cancer. In fact, anything that weakens your immune system—stress, lack of sleep, consumption of alcohol, and even refined sugar—can lead to an overgrowth of yeast.
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Try it: If you have a yeast infection that won’t quit, talk to your doctor about going on fluconazole. Two 150-milligram pills taken three days apart “is a common treatment” for a yeast infection, says Sherry Ross, MD, an ob-gyn in Santa Monica and author of She-ology. For milder infections, your doctor may recommend one 150-milligram dose, but “for severe or chronic infections, treatment regimens using fluconazole can be taken daily or weekly for six months,” she says.
Imidazoles are best but pregnant women may need longer (7 not 4 day) courses. Thrush is a common vaginal infection in pregnancy causing itching and soreness. There is no evidence that this yeast infection harms the baby. Antifungal creams are effective. Imidazoles (such as clotrimazole) are more effective than older treatments such as nystatin and hydrargaphen. Longer courses (7 days) cured more than 90% of women whereas standard (4 day) courses only cured about half the cases.
When you do develop a yeast infection, it’s not comfortable, says women’s health expert Jennifer Wider, MD. However, yeast infections can be confused with other vaginal issues like STIs, a skin allergy to latex or feminine hygiene products, a lack of estrogen in the vagina, or tears in the vagina, says Sherry A. Ross, MD, a women's health expert and author of She-ology: The Definitive Guide to Women's Intimate Health. Period. Still, there are a few distinct symptoms to have on your radar:

Yeast infections are treated with a pill that you swallow, or with a vaginal cream or vaginal suppository (a partially solid material that you insert into your vagina, where it dissolves and releases medicine). Your health care provider will explain to you what your choices are and if one is better than another for you. The pill is especially good if you don’t want to put cream inside of your vagina. Some anti-yeast vaginal creams are sold over-the-counter (without a prescription) in pharmacies. Other anti-yeast vaginal creams need a prescription. If you use a cream, then you should not use tampons during the treatment since it will absorb the medication and make it less effective.

Even though the signs and symptoms of yeast infection may point to the cause, vaginal itching and discharge can be caused by other conditions including bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas infections. To most accurately make the diagnosis, a sample of the discharge is tested in the laboratory, either by culture or by direct examination under a microscope, to identify the yeast organisms and to help rule out other causes such as bacterial vaginosis or sexually-transmitted diseases.
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