Thrush is usually whitish oral, velvety lesions that appear on the tongue and mouth. Underneath the whitish material lies the red tissue which bleeds easily. The size and number of lesions can increase slowly in untreated cases. Thrush may be widespread (to involve large parts of tongue, mouth’s roof and inside of cheeks) and may mimic oral ulcers. These white patches cannot be rubbed off like bits of milk.
If your infant is extra fussy during feedings and you notice white patches in her mouth, she may have an oral yeast infection known as thrush. You've probably experienced a vaginal yeast infection at some point in your life, so you can imagine the discomfort your little one is feeling. What exactly is thrush, and how can you help your baby feel better? Here’s the deal.
How does thrush affect men? Thrush is a fungal infection caused by Candida yeasts. There are two types: genital thrush, which, in men, can cause irritation and swelling at the head of the penis, and oral thrush that occurs in the mouth. Mild infections may not require treatment, but medications and home remedies may help to relieve symptoms. Read now

In adults, oral yeast infections become more common with increased age. Adults also can have yeast infections around dentures, in skin folds under the breast and lower abdomen, nailbeds, and beneath other skin folds. Most of these candida infections are superficial and clear up easily with treatment. Infections of the nailbeds often require prolonged therapy.
One of the most common symptoms is intense itchiness in both the vaginal opening and the vulva, so feeling like you constantly have to scratch is a solid indicator that something isn't right, Mason says. It doesn't help that fungus thrives in warm, moist environments (like your vagina), so it's important that you start treating a yeast infection right away before your symptoms get worse.
To keep pooch’s ears healthy, regularly check for discharge, odor, and swelling. After your dog bathes or swims, gently dry the outer part of the ears as well as you can. If your dog has hair in the opening of his ears, ask his groomer to trim or tweeze it. You can do it yourself if your dog will let you, but you need to be very careful. Only pluck hairs that are easily visible. Never insert any object into the ear canal unless your vet has shown you how to do it safely. Otherwise, you can damage the ear drum and cause severe problems.
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In addition to symptoms of vaginal yeast infections, such as burning or itching at the labia, a woman may experience sudden nipple pain that lasts through the feeding, or itchy or burning nipples with a candida albicus overgrowth that has also infected the nipples in the form of thrush. Affected nipples may look red, shiny, flaky or even have small blisters. "The Breastfeeding Answer Book" advises to watch for traces of white fungus in the folds of the nipple or breast, or cracked nipples. An infected breast-fed baby may also have white patches on his gums, cheeks, palate or tongue. Also, diaper rash, gassiness or general fussiness are all signs of thrush and that the yeast has spread to the baby.
Candida organisms naturally live on the skin, but breakdown of the outer layers of skin promote the yeast's overgrowth. This typically occurs when the environment is warm and moist such as in diaper areas and skin folds. Superficial candida skin infections appear as a red flat rash with sharp scalloped edges. There are usually smaller patches of similar appearing rash nearby, known as "satellite lesions." These rashes may cause itching or pain.
Candidiasis can affect the skin, mucous membranes (eg, mouth, throat), fingernails, eyes, and skin folds of the neck and armpits, as well as the diaper region (eg, vagina, folds of the groin). The oral infection, called thrush, frequently occurs in infants and toddlers. If Candida infections become chronic or occur in the mouth of older children, they may be a sign of an immune deficiency, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Very low birth weight babies are susceptible to candidiasis as well. Newborns can acquire the infection from their mothers, not only while they’re still in the uterus, but also during passage through the vagina during birth. Most of these infections are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like fungus, although other species of Candida are sometimes responsible. In some cases, children can develop candidiasis after being treated with antibacterials.
^ Jump up to: a b c Pappas, PG; Kauffman, CA; Andes, DR; Clancy, CJ; Marr, KA; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Reboli, AC; Schuster, MG; Vazquez, JA; Walsh, TJ; Zaoutis, TE; Sobel, JD (16 December 2015). "Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Candidiasis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases: civ933. doi:10.1093/cid/civ933. PMC 4725385. PMID 26679628.

In people who have a weakened immune system because of cancer treatments, steroids, or diseases such as AIDS, candida infections can occur throughout the entire body and can be life-threatening. The blood, brain, eye, kidney, and heart are most frequently affected, but Candida also can grow in the lungs, liver, and spleen. Candida is a leading cause of esophagitis (inflammation in the swallowing tube) in people with AIDS.
Betamethasone dipropionate is a fluorinated high-potency topical corticosteroid that is formulated with clotrimazole in the brand-named product Lotrisone. This product is frequently used inappropriately in intertriginous (diaper regions where deep folds of skin overlap) areas. Such potent corticosteroids have no role in the treatment of a Candida diaper rash. The absorption of such a highly potent steroid may produce multiple (and potentially severe) side effects.
A: It sounds like your baby may have a yeast infection diaper rash, which can happen if a mild diaper rash gets infected with yeast. This is especially likely if your baby recently took antibiotics. If your baby's had the rash for more than a few days and go-to diaper rash treatments (like Desitin or A+D ointment) haven't helped clear it, call your pediatrician. You'll probably need an anti-fungal cream (there are over-the-counter and prescription versions, but you shouldn't use them without your doctor's approval), which usually helps beat the rash quickly. Your baby should also be evaluated to make sure it isn't something more aggressive than diaper rash.
Vaginal yeast infection is often seen as a side effect of cancer treatment. Your white blood cells, which normally keep the yeast usually found in your vagina and digestive tract from overgrowing, can be reduced by chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Steroid drugs can also reduce your immune system's ability to maintain balance. High-dose antibiotics sometimes used in cancer treatment can also give way to a yeast infection.

Some studies have indicated that preventing diaper rash may be done by applying barrier creams like zinc oxide (A+D Ointment, Desitin, Diaparene) or petroleum jelly (Vaseline, Aquaphor) to the diaper area after bathing. These products may help to decrease the ambient moisture in the diaper area after bathing or changing a diaper. Gentle cleaning to minimize skin breakdown may also be helpful. Air exposure (for example, no diaper) is also therapeutic.


The health of the vagina relies on beneficial probiotic bacteria (lactobacilli, including L. acidophilus) to maintain a slightly acidic pH and keep yeast from overgrowing. Some suggest that women consume probiotics naturally found in yogurt or kefir, take probiotic supplements, or apply probiotic products vaginally (as appropriate), either to help relieve yeast infection symptoms or prevent recurrent yeast infections.
Since thrush is easily passed back and forth, it’s best if both you and your baby get treated. For your baby, your pediatrician may prescribe an antifungal medication (such as Nystatin), which is applied topically to the insides of the mouth and tongue multiple times a day for 10 days. Be sure to get it on all the white patches in your baby's mouth if that's the remedy your doctor has given you. In a tough case, fluconazole (brand name Diflucan), an oral medication given by dropper, may be prescribed.
Topical antibiotic (antifungal) treatments (applied directly to the affected area) are available without a prescription. These include vaginal creams, tablets, or suppositories. Regimens vary according to the length of treatment and are typically 1- or 3-day regimens. Recurrent infections may require even longer courses of topical treatment. These topical treatments relieve symptoms and eradicate evidence of the infection in up to 90% of those who complete treatment.
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