^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes DR, Clancy CJ, Marr KA, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Reboli AC, Schuster MG, Vazquez JA, Walsh TJ, Zaoutis TE, Sobel JD (2016). "Executive Summary: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Candidiasis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clin. Infect. Dis. 62 (4): 409–417. doi:10.1093/cid/civ1194. PMID 26810419.
Once treatment starts, most candidiasis infections get better within about 2 weeks. Recurrences are fairly common. Long-lasting thrush is sometimes related to pacifiers. The infection is much more difficult to treat in children with catheters or weakened immune systems. The catheter usually must be removed or replaced and tests are done to determine whether infection has spread to other parts of the body. Antifungal therapy may need to be given for weeks to months.
Candida species can be present in healthy women in the vagina without causing any symptoms. In fact, it is estimated that 20% to 50% of women have Candida already present in the vagina. For an infection to occur, the normal balance of yeast and bacteria is disturbed, allowing overgrowth of the yeast. While yeast can be spread by sexual contact, vaginal yeast infection is not considered to be a sexually-transmitted disease because it can also occur in women who are not sexually active, due to the fact that yeast can be present in the vagina of healthy women.
Systemic candidiasis occurs when Candida yeast enters the bloodstream and may spread (becoming disseminated candidiasis) to other organs, including the central nervous system, kidneys, liver, bones, muscles, joints, spleen, or eyes. Treatment typically consists of oral or intravenous antifungal medications. In candidal infections of the blood, intravenous fluconazole or an echinocandin such as caspofungin may be used. Amphotericin B is another option.
Watson, C. J., Grando, D., Fairley, C. K., Chondros, P., Garland, S. M., Myers, S. P., & Pirotta, M. (2013, December 6). The effects of oral garlic on vaginal Candida colony counts: A randomised placebo controlled double-blind trial [Abstract]. BJOG, 121(4), 498–506. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1471-0528.12518/abstract
References: 1. ISSVD. (2016). Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (Candida, Yeast): Tips for Diagnosis and Treatment (Version 1.0) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com. 2. Richter SS, et al. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species causing vulvovaginitis and epidemiology of recurrent cases. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(5):2155-2162. 3. Mølgaard-Nielsen D, Svanström H, Melbye M, Hviid A, Pasternak B. Association between use of oral fluconazole during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. JAMA. 2016;315(1):58-67. 4. Lowes R. Low-dose fluconazole in pregnancy worries FDA. Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/862447. Published April 26, 2016. Accessed August 26, 2017. 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vulvovaginal candidiasis. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/candidiasis.htm. Updated June 4, 2015. Accessed August 26, 2017. 6. May M, Schindler C. Clinically and pharmacologically relevant interactions of antidiabetic drugs. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2016;7(2):69-83. 7. Diflucan [prescribing information]. New York, NY: Roerig; 2013. 8. Goswami D, Goswami R, Banerjee U, et al. Pattern of Candida species isolated from patients with diabetes mellitus and vulvovaginal candidiasis and their response to single dose oral fluconazole therapy. J Infect. 2006;52(2):111-117. 9. Nyirjesy P, Sobel JD. Genital mycotic infections in patients with diabetes. Postgrad Med. 2015;125(3):33-46.